France1 France2 France3 France4

法國

France
France
面積:  643,801 km2

人口: 6671萬人
首都: 巴黎
語言: 法語
使用貨幣: 歐元、太平洋法郎 
 

法蘭西共和國,簡稱法國,是位於西歐並具有海外大區及領地的主權國家,首都為歐洲最大的文化與金融中心巴黎。該國本土由地中海一直延伸至英倫海峽及北海,並由萊茵河一直延伸至大西洋,整體呈六角狀。海外領土包括南美洲的法屬圭亞那及分布於大西洋、太平洋和印度洋的諸島嶼。全國共分為18個大區,其中5個位於海外。法國與西班牙及摩洛哥為同時擁有地中海及大西洋海岸線的三個國家。法國的國土面積全球第四十一位,但卻為歐盟及西歐國土面積最遼闊的國家,歐洲面積第三大大國家。

科技

自中世紀起,法國就是世界科技發展的重要貢獻者之一。11世紀初,羅馬教宗西爾維斯特二世(法國人,本名熱爾貝·德奧里亞克)在北歐與西歐重新引入算盤、環形球儀、阿拉伯數字和鐘錶。12世紀中期成立的巴黎大學現今仍是西方世界最為重要的高等學府之一。17世紀,勒內·笛卡爾創立解析幾何,將當時完全分開的代數和幾何學聯繫到一起;布萊茲·帕斯卡是機率學和流體力學的奠基人。此二人都是當時席捲歐洲的科學革命的重要人物。為激勵和保護法國人的科學研究精神,17世紀,路易十四設立法國科學院,這是世界上最早的科學學院之一。該機構在17至18世紀站在歐洲科技發展的最前沿。

啟蒙時代法國的科技成就非凡,其中兩位科學巨人布豐和安托萬·拉瓦節的著作和理論分別對於近代生態學和化學有著深遠影響。德尼·狄德羅和讓·勒朗·達朗貝爾主編了《百科全書》,它是歷史上第一部致力於普及科學和藝術知識的綜合性百科全書。19世紀,隨著工業革命的開展,法國科技依然碩果纍纍,湧現出一批批著名科學家。奧古斯丁·菲涅耳是近代光學的奠基人;尼古拉·卡諾為熱力學的研究提供了理論基礎;路易·巴斯德則是微生物學的先驅。巴黎艾菲爾鐵塔上所刻的72個姓名,其中絕大部分都是法國的傑出科學家。

20世紀法國的著名科學家包括數學家兼物理學家昂利·龐加萊;物理學家亨利·貝克、保羅·朗之萬、路易·德布羅意、皮艾爾·居里和瑪麗·居里,其中居里夫婦對於放射學的貢獻卓著;病毒學家呂克·蒙塔尼耶,是人類免疫缺陷病毒的發現者之一。1998年9月23日,一支由世界各國科學家組成的研究團隊在里昂成功實現手移植,這其中包括法國醫生讓-米歇爾·迪貝爾納,他成功地實行世界首例雙手移植手術。2001年9月7日雅各·馬雷斯科團隊成功實現世界首例遠距外科手術,即林德伯格手術。2005年11月27日貝爾納·德沃謝勒實現了臉部移植。

法國是世界上第四個擁有核武器的國家,現擁有世界第三大核武貯備量,而且在民用核技術領域具有領軍地位。法國於1965年通過鑽石A型運載火箭發射其第一顆人造衛星阿斯泰利克斯號,成為世界上第三個能夠完全自行發射人造衛星的國家。法國現為歐洲太空總署的主要貢獻者(參見法國國家空間研究中心)。空中巴士集團總部位於法國土魯斯,主要負責民用/軍用飛行器以及通信系統、飛彈、宇宙火箭、直升機、衛星和相關儀器的設計研發,其前身歐洲航空防務與航太公司由法國航空航太公司、戴姆勒克萊斯勒航空航太公司和航空建造公司合併而成。1970年法國國有鐵路公司法國國家鐵路推出法國高速列車(TGV),2007年4月3日以574.8公里的時速創造輪軌列車的最快紀錄。如今法國TGV網絡同樣負責西歐的鐵路運輸。

截至2014年,法國有67人獲得過諾貝爾獎(其中物理學獎13人、化學獎8人、生理學或醫學獎13人),12人獲得過菲爾茲獎。

農業

法國農業人口占總人口的3.8%,農產品行業產值占法國2005年GDP的4.2%。肥沃的田土、先進的技術以及歐盟補貼使法國成為歐洲領先的農業生產國,其農業生產量占歐洲總量的20%,是世界第三大農產品出口國。小麥、家禽、乳製品、牛肉、豬肉和國際認證加工食品是法國主要的農業出口品。牛奶及乳品、豬肉、家禽,以及蘋果的生產都集中在西部地區。牛肉產自法國中部,而葡萄酒的生產則分布於法國中部和南部地區。法國畜牧業在第二次世界大戰後發展較快。20世紀80年代初,畜牧業和種植業的產值比重大致保持在55%和45%左右。另外,農場平均規模不斷擴大,根據1980年度農業普查,平均規模已經超過25公頃。這些大農場主要分布在巴黎盆地。畜牧業集中在諾曼第、布列塔尼和法國中央高原。中央高原以養牛業為主,布列塔尼以養豬為主,西北部則以養羊為主。當地養禽業較普遍,鵝肝就是有名的出口食品。在酒品方面,桃紅葡萄酒主要供應國內消費,而法國產香檳酒和波爾多葡萄酒則世界聞名,亦是重要的出口品。達能集團是著名的法國乳製品加工商。法國農業依賴來自歐盟的補貼,為歐盟內反對降低補貼的主要國家。近年來,歐盟對於法國農業的補貼有所下降,但2007年仍達到80億美元。

觀光

法國是世界上最受歡迎的旅遊目的地,2012年有8300萬名遊客赴法旅遊,其中並不包括停駐時間少於24小時的遊客,例如計劃赴西班牙和義大利旅遊但將法國作為中轉站的北歐遊客。在旅遊收入方面,法國則排名世界第三,這主要是因為遊客的停留時間較短。法國擁有37個聯合國教科文組織認定的世界文化遺產,同時擁有文化氛圍濃厚的城市、海灘和海岸度假勝地、滑雪度假村以及景色優美而寧靜的農村地區。「法國最美麗的村莊」組織致力於對適宜生態旅遊的村莊進行評級,而法國亦由文化及通信部評選出200多座景色怡人的花園,給予「法國非凡花園」稱號,便於給予生態保護。此外,法國聖雅各伯朝聖之路和露德聖母朝聖地是重要的宗教性旅遊目的地,每年皆可吸引眾多基督教朝覲者。

法國(尤其是巴黎)擁有眾多世界知名的博物館,其中,羅浮宮是世界上遊覽人數第二多的藝術博物館,僅次於中國故宮博物院。奧賽博物館和龐畢度中心亦為著名的法國博物館,前者主要收集印象派藝術作品,後者主要收集當代藝術作品。巴黎迪士尼樂園度假區是歐洲最受歡迎的主題公園,2009年有1500萬名遊客遊覽度假區的迪士尼樂園和華特迪士尼影城。

蔚藍海岸(Côte d'Azur)每年大約接待1000萬名遊客,為法國第二大旅遊目的地,僅次於首都巴黎所在的法蘭西島大區,每年世界50%的豪華遊艇集結於此。蔚藍海岸每年大約有300天的日照時長和115公里(71英里)的海岸和海灘,18處高爾夫球場、14處滑雪度假村以及大約3,000家餐廳。羅亞爾河流域是法國的另外一個主要旅遊目的地,被稱為「法國的花園」和「法語的搖籃」,以其高質量的建築遺產著稱,擁有眾多法式城堡(châteaux)。著名的城堡有昂布瓦斯城堡、香波爾城堡、於塞城堡、維朗德里城堡和舍農索城堡。

文化

13世紀以來,法國都是世界文化中心之一。法國擁有眾多世界聞名的藝術家,並且因其深厚的文化傳統而聞名於世。法國文化富有多元性,具有濃厚的哥德式藝術和天主教式融合的風格。現代法國文化則因為經歷許多挫折,例如英法百年戰爭、舊制度時代、法國大革命、普法戰爭、巴黎公社、兩次世界大戰等等,不斷湧現和產生出新的文化融合來,造就出今天的法蘭西文化;而這自然就與古代古典的法蘭克文化相對地顯得大相逕庭。法國對文化嚴肅以待,作家、藝術家、服飾設計師以及知識分子等,在法國社會上都有崇高的地位。1959年成立的法國文化部致力於保護文化遺產、發展旅遊觀光、給予藝術補貼、舉辦節日慶典及文化活動和保護並提升法國文化在世界的地位。

法國大革命被視為法國人的集體回憶,大大地影響法國人的價值觀念。法國憲法第1條所定義的法國的國家象徵,即國旗紅白藍三色旗、國歌《馬賽曲》,格言「自由、平等、博愛」,以及民間的國家擬人化象徵瑪麗安娜、公共假日巴士底日,都源自於大革命。法國的另一個國家象徵是高盧雄雞,源自於拉丁文詞彙Gallus所具有的多義「公雞」和「高盧人」。無論是王室還是革命者,都將高盧雄雞當作是法國的不二象徵,高盧雄雞的形象經常出現於郵票與硬幣上。

法國全國歷史建築及文化地點眾多,使得法國成為世界上旅遊參觀者最多的國家。法國國內大約有1,200家博物館,每年招待有5,000多萬名遊客。一些重要的文化景點受到政府保護,如國家歷史文物中心負責85處文物古蹟的保護。在43,180處歷史建築物中,包括眾多法式城堡(châteaux)、天主教堂、花園、紀念碑和紀念館。

法國文化在全球具有積極的影響。根據2008年的國家品牌指數,法國的名望位居世界第二,僅次於德國。而2010年BBC的一項基於28國29,977個回執的調查得出,49%的受調查者對於法國文化影響的看法是積極的,而19%的受調查者具有消極的看法,餘下持中立觀點。根據2011年的一項調查,法國具有最高程度的宗教寬容度,且擁有較強的國家認同感,而非宗教認同感。69%的法國人對於美國具有正面看法,使得法國成為世界上最為親美的國家之一。2010年1月,《國際生活》雜誌連續第五年將法國評為「世界最宜居國家」。

根據2003年的統計排名,法國最受歡迎的旅遊景點(按年遊客多寡排序)有艾菲爾鐵塔(620萬)、羅浮宮(570萬)、凡爾賽宮(280萬)、奧賽博物館(210萬)、巴黎凱旋門(120萬)、龐畢度中心(120萬)、聖米歇爾山(100萬)、香波爾城堡(71萬)、聖禮拜堂(68萬)、上國王堡城堡(55萬)、多姆山(50萬)、畢加索博物館(44萬)和卡爾卡松(36萬)。

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France, officially the French Republic, is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.25 million (as of June 2018). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Strasbourg.

Science and technology

Since the Middle Ages, France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. Around the beginning of the 11th century, Pope Sylvester II, born Gerbert d'Aurillac, reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphere, and introduced Arabic numerals and clocks to Northern and Western Europe. The University of Paris, founded in the mid-12th century, is still one of the most important universities in the Western world. In the 17th century, mathematician René Descartes defined a method for the acquisition of scientific knowledge, while Blaise Pascal became famous for his work on probability and fluid mechanics. They were both key figures of the Scientific revolution, which blossomed in Europe during this period. The Academy of Sciences was founded by Louis XIV to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is one of the earliest academies of sciences.

The Age of Enlightenment was marked by the work of biologist Buffon and chemist Lavoisier, who discovered the role of oxygen in combustion, while Diderot and D'Alembert published the Encyclopédie, which aimed to give access to "useful knowledge" to the people, a knowledge that they can apply to their everyday life. With the Industrial Revolution, the 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments in France with scientists such as Augustin Fresnel, founder of modern optics, Sadi Carnot who laid the foundations of thermodynamics, and Louis Pasteur, a pioneer of microbiology. Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.

Famous French scientists of the 20th century include the mathematician and physicist Henri Poincaré, physicists Henri Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie, remained famous for their work on radioactivity, the physicist Paul Langevin and virologist Luc Montagnier, co-discoverer of HIV AIDS. Hand transplantation was developed on 23 September 1998 in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant. Telesurgery was developed by Jacques Marescaux and his team on 7 September 2001 across the Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg, Lindbergh Operation). A face transplant was first done on 27 November 2005 by Dr Bernard Devauchelle.

Agriculture

France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products. Extensive tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe (representing 20% of the EU's agricultural production) and the world's third biggest exporter of agricultural products.

Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports. Rosé wines are primarily consumed within the country, but Champagne and Bordeaux wines are major exports, being known worldwide. EU agriculture subsidies to France have decreased in recent years but still amounted to $8 billion in 2007. That same year, France sold 33.4 billion euros of transformed agricultural products. France produces rum via sugar cane-based distilleries almost all of which are located in overseas territories such as Martinique, Guadeloupe and La Réunion. Agriculture is an important sector of France's economy: 3.8% of the active population is employed in agriculture, whereas the total agri-food industry made up 4.2% of French GDP in 2005.

Tourism

With 83 million foreign tourists in 2012, France is ranked as the first tourist destination in the world, ahead of the United States (67 million) and China (58 million). This 83 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours, such as North Europeans crossing France on their way to Spain or Italy. It is third in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits.[182] The most popular tourist sites include (annual visitors): Eiffel Tower (6.2 million), Château de Versailles (2.8 million), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million), Pont du Gard (1.5 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Mont Saint-Michel (1 million), Sainte-Chapelle (683,000), Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000), Puy de Dôme (500,000), Musée Picasso (441,000), Carcassonne (362,000).

France, especially Paris, has some of the world's largest and renowned museums, including the Louvre, which is the most visited art museum in the world (5.7 million), the Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million), mostly devoted to Impressionism, and Centre Georges Pompidou (1.2 million), dedicated to contemporary art. Disneyland Paris is Europe's most popular theme park, with 15 million combined visitors to the resort's Disneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park in 2009.

France has 37 sites inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List and features cities of high cultural interest, beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (green tourism). Small and picturesque French villages are promoted through the association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (literally "The Most Beautiful Villages of France"). The "Remarkable Gardens" label is a list of the over 200 gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture. This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks. France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St. James, or to Lourdes, a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées that hosts several million visitors a year. Another major destination are the castles (French: châteaux) of the Loire Valley; this World Heritage Site is noteworthy for its architectural heritage, in its historic towns but in particular its castles, such as the Châteaux d'Amboise, de Chambord, d'Ussé, de Villandry, Chenonceau and Montsoreau. The Château de Chantilly and Vaux-le-Vicomte, both located near Paris, are also visitor attractions.

With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera (French: Côte d'Azur), in Southeast France, is the second leading tourist destination in the country, after the Paris region. It benefits from 300 days of sunshine per year, 115 kilometres (71 mi) of coastline and beaches, 18 golf courses, 14 ski resorts and 3,000 restaurants. Each year the Côte d'Azur hosts 50% of the world's superyacht fleet.

France has been a centre of Western cultural development for centuries. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognised in the world for its rich cultural tradition.

Culture

The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in 1959 helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public. The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments. The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country.

France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory. It counts 1,200 museums welcoming more than 50 million people annually. The most important cultural sites are run by the government, for instance through the public agency Centre des monuments nationaux, which is responsible for approximately 85 national historical monuments.

The 43,180 buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences (many castles) and religious buildings (cathedrals, basilicas, churches), but also statutes, memorials and gardens. The UNESCO inscribed 41 sites in France on the World Heritage List.

More information: https://www.france.fr/en